In the non-deferable environmental and digital (dual) transition that global economies are facing, competitiveness and sustainability can be seen as complementary goals to be achieved through strategic investments in green technologies and digitalization. The secure and sustainable supply of critical raw materials and the supply of critical skills are at the core of these strategic investments. For regions and local actors this implies the need to anticipate and seize unique opportunities, while facing new challenges in terms of adaptation. The former cannot be missed, the latter cannot be avoided. Indeed, the digitalization has triggered a cascade of transformations in the structure of labour markets as well as in global value chains and in the supply of critical raw materials. On similar grounds, the increasing concerns about environmental degradation have spur renewed efforts in the generation of green technologies, engendering substantial changes in the demand for skills and labour and, also, in setting up effective strategies to facilitate the secure and sustainable supply of critical raw materials.